The Paradigm Shift - Part 2
One of the foundations of CST is that the mind and body are resilient and have an innate ability to heal themselves. Sometimes they need a bit of help to make this happen. CST is a gentle technique that allows for the body to make its own corrections, adjustments and releases so healing can happen from the inside out.
Reactions during a treatment:
Every session is unique, depending on each individual client. Apart from symptom reduction, whether the client comes for neck/shoulder pain, headaches, tinnitus, tmj, chronic fatigue, back/hip pain etc the most common responses are a deep sense of relaxation, reduction in pain, muscle twitching and the body letting go of any stresses and tensions,whilst tissues unwind and the body realigns. Sometimes an emotion or old memory can come up to be released and processed. Some may feel a short increase of pain in a seemingly unrelated area as the body is letting go of an old injury. In my years of practice, I have seen many responses. Overall the most common one is symptom reduction, profound sense of relaxation, muscle twitching and internal shifts happening as tissues unwind.
Reactions at the end of a treatment.
There again can be a wide variety of additional reactions to a treatment depending on the individual. Some people may feel tired or spaced out especially if symptoms have been suppressed, most of all people feel a deep sense of relaxation and symptom reduction. Overall people feel better not only physically, but also mentally and emotionally as adjustments are being made.
How to get the best out of your treatment.
As I shift and move around your body following fascial pulls and restrictions, fluid motion and compressive forces, try and go within. I may stay in one place for a longer time particularly when there is a blockage, restriction or high activity. All my treatments are different and depend on what comes up and what needs to be addressed in that session. Each session builds upon any previous sessions. Setting time aside for yourself after a treatment is a good thing.
Three key Paradigm shifts of Craniosacral Therapy
In my next blog I will address this relative new field of medicine –called PNI – Psychoneuroimmunology. A branch of medicine that looks into the bidirectional relationships between the mind, brain and immune system and in particular deals with the influence of emotional states (stress) and nervous system activity on immune function in relation to the onset of symptoms and disease.
Float like a butterfly
Craniosacral Therapy treats physical symptoms while also relieving any underlying stresses that are held in the body. We treat the body as an integrated whole rather than a collection of parts that needs to be worked on mechanistically. For clients who are just starting I am often asked about the Cranio touch, how it works and what they can expect. This blog has come to light because of my inspiring clients and their questions. Thank you and please keep them coming!
First and foremost we listen with our hands. Our hands are sensitively and extensively trained to listen to the body through local and general whole body listening into an area of pain, imbalance or restriction. Cranio works with physical symptoms and involves listening to the language of the body. We listen for rhythmic motions in the body as it is expressed through our tissues, bones, fluids, craniosacral system and nervous system. We listen for impressions of quality, symmetry, motion and amplitude in those systems. Craniosacral has a subtle touch, because the craniosacral system and its bodily motions are subtle and it allows for the healing forces within us to come to the surface.
With my hands I listen for:
All these above points provide relevant and important information for a treatment and can only be felt and accessed by a gentle touch. A firmer touch will cause the body to go into protection mode and all that rich data and information will not be available or easy to listen to. We assess how your issues may have permeated and ricochet through your body, where it is stuck and how it affects you, very much like untangling and unraveling a knotted up elastic band.
So what does that mean concretely:
When a client comes for instance with a jaw problem or hip problem (also applicable to other areas of physical symptoms in the body), I would feel for several issues: Is there a difference in the bones between left and right? Is the left more twisted or bulging? Is there a more persistent pull in one direction? Are there any fascial pulls or tensions within the membranes of the skull, or the bowl of the pelvis impacting other bones/muscles? Can the Jaw/Pelvis make its full range of motion? Are there feelings of vibrations, warmth, coolness, pulsations, hardness, softness or tightness? Where does the line of tension start and where does it stop?
For Jaw problems - I would work inside the mouth to release muscles related to the jaw, the roof of the mouth and the smaller bones at the back of the hard palate to release any restrictions. The roof of the mouth is very much connected with the bones that form the floor of the brain cavity and a disruption here can have a profound effect on our overall sense of well-being. I feel and follow the change as it happens and move my hands in response to the changes, always following the body’s inner wisdom as it self-corrects. As the body finds its own way back it will be able to let go, soften, release restrictions and will be able to settle into the more deeper states of the Cranio rhythm known as the mid-tide and long-tide, where our own deeper inherent healing potential lies.
When there is a high level of stress or trauma in the body, I slow the activity down. I may induce still points, balance the nervous system and allowing for any emotional and physical releases to happen in a very safe and contained way. All the time following the inherent wisdom of the body, allowing for self-healing to come to the surface. One of the strongest point of Cranio is that it has a deep and profound effect on relaxing the nervous system, which really is the conductor of the orchestra in our body. Through Cranio we aim to reset the nervous system to a lower level of activation which allows the body to turn of any fight and flight stress hormones that often keep circulating, long after the event.
That is where the Paradigm shift starts as in our western way of thinking we tend to overlook our own immense innate power and innate intelligence that exists within all of us. This innate intelligence knows how to heal itself, given half the chance and is way more intelligent than an outside intervention that is being applied. Some doors are only opened from the inside. Having practiced CST for a good few years now and undergone the Paradigm shift I cannot imagine ever going back to treating the body without listening to it, addressing the root cause by addressing the most internal core parts, so healing can happen from the inside to the outside.
On a Physical body level the body releases muscle pain and deep stored tensions. Emotionally, the body releases emotional memories that may have been stored as we dive deeper into the layers of the tissues. Spiritually the body can connect to their Inner Physician and Mentally an intense deep state of relaxation is facilitated (More than our Physical Body - blog).
In my next blog part 2 – I will explain reactions during and after a treatment and how you can enhance your cranio session.
Reference: Thomas Attlee - CranioSacral Integration
Trauma is often only understood as a psychological reaction that we need to deal with in the mind. Trauma is very much also a physiological reaction that circulates in the body long after the event, as our reactions and responses to trauma are primarily bodily ones. During a traumatic or threatening situation we tend to go into a highly charged freeze or fight/flight response. This undischarged residual energy can, unconscious to us, remain in our body for many years as an incomplete physiological response manifesting itself as physical symptoms like e.g.: sleep disturbances, anxiety, hyper vigilance, irritability, ear ringing, digestive problems, jaw problems, back problems, migraines and be a host to all sorts of various pains and conditions. The key to resolving and healing Trauma lies in our physiology, in our bodily responses, that needs to be resolved and discharged.
Craniosacral addresses a wide variety of symptoms and conditions from physical pains, structural misalignments, muscular tensions to emotional blockages, but trauma and stress release was definitely my favourite subject: working with the nervous system survival responses and the residual effects of trauma lodged in the body.………. ironically, never in a million years did I think trauma would strike me.
I came to experience what I had learned during my education when a good few years ago, my world became a very dark and lonely place as I suffered a severe physical & emotional trauma. As a result, I experienced a multitude of physical symptoms: non-stop raging headaches, migraines, ear ringing, neck pain, anxiety, nerve tingling and extreme sensitivity to light, to name a few. For months, I was unable to sleep or eat. The rug had been pulled out from underneath me, I was lost.
So my Dr's, specialists and hospital rounds began, from A to Z, each with their own well-intended prescription pads: pain killers, beta blockers, digestive relief, anti-anxiety, anti-depressants, muscle relaxants, laxatives, anti-inflammatory, stomach acid reduction pills, sleeping tablets, valium and narcotics in all sorts of varieties form tramadol to oxycodone to oxycontin. I ended up being the Pharmacy! Being originally from Amsterdam I could have easily paid off my student loan by selling all on a street corner in the red light district.
I wanted to clear my anxious state, calm my nervous system, improve my sleeping but most of all find relief for all my physical symptom by resolving them at root cause. Thank goodness I knew Cranio and turned to my colleague: a highly skilled buddy and certified Cranio angel extraordinaire.
During my first few cranial sessions we focused on my mental and emotional body by getting me back into my body, becoming less disassociated, as my body was a terrifying place to be in after the trauma. In fact, for the first 2 sessions I was not able to get on the table as touch was just too overwhelming. Subsequent sessions focused on calming my nervous system allowing me to become less anxious, less hyper-vigilant and releasing the undischarged residual energy in a very safe and contained way. My therapist could only move as fast as my body felt safe to let go, peeling away the layers whilst she facilitated an incredible safe space and presence for me to do so. In the final sessions, we were able to deal with my physical body and its pain. I became aware of how much tension I had really been holding, as my therapist was unwinding the tissues, releasing all my restrictions and pain. I could feel this immense anger bubbling up, because of what had happened. I had no idea that this anger but also sadness had been living so deep inside of me. I had suppressed my emotions in order to cope, a common theme amongst trauma victims but also for many people in day to day life. I have lived through what I had learned in my education and I have an even deeper respect of how the body deals and expresses itself through, any kind of life event or circumstance, big or small.
Thank goodness I am completely back to my happy, bubbly, pain-free, belly laughing self with even a greater passion, empathy and understanding for my work and for all my clients. In my own practice I see people with all kinds of symptoms: acute, one-off or with more chronic and long-standing problems. For these clients their history often reveals that there has been a long road of other seemingly unrelated problems, inflammations, anxiety, autoimmune conditions or neurological problems. By the time these clients come and see me, they have taken various roads to try and resolve their symptoms. They have had things cut out, removed, fused, worked on but are still in pain and often on long-term medication as a symptom management. The source of their symptoms however is often traceable to a form of trauma in their past that is still being carried in the present through unconscious emotions, the biology of stress and/or cut of body responses.
Trauma can be a one-off significant event but trauma can also be experienced in a more slow, cumulative kind of way through childhood adversity like an abusive parent, an emotionally cold, alcoholic, absent or mentally unwell parent. It can be experienced through work, accidents, illness or relationships. Most of my clients are aware that there is some level off trauma on an intellectual level but are unaware of the imprints the trauma has left in their body, mind and soul on a more primal level. Their experiences have created physiological effects in their body and left marks, continuing to behave and react as if the experience is still happening and therefore can be triggered by seemingly unrelated new experiences.
Renowned Boston based Dutch Psychiatrist and my favorite author on the subject matter Bessel van der Kolk states: ”the most essential aspect of healing is learning to fully inhabit our inner sense of self in all its dimensions– not only emotionally and psychological but bodily as well, as they are inseparable from one another”. “Some of the best therapy is largely non-verbal”. “I always recommend incorporating a bottom up approach like Yoga and Mindfulness and I always refer people to Craniosacral work”.
My pharmacy shop? I tried, but the pills were not for me, although they do have a place and can give initial support, just like a good psychologist. Some of my clients see a psychologist at the same time, which works really well and complementary together. I was fortunate that I had already discovered Cranio as a holistic mind-body approach and knew from experience that there are other fabulous complementary medicines. So I chose natural medicine, homeopathy and naturopathy as my multi-disciplinary approach. In the end I decided to let my own internal pharmacy go to work and found relief in a quote from Hippocrates, the founder of Medicine: “Natural forces within us are the true healers of disease”
Kern, M. (2005) Wisdom in the body.
Van der Kolk, B. (2017) How Trauma lodges itself in the body (online) available from http://www.onbeing.org
With immense gratitude to Monica Bovy - www.cranio-sante.ch
For further reading on Trauma – please see printed articles on my website on how “PTSD could be treated with Craniosacral Therapy” (click here) a “Research in to the effectiveness of Cranio on anxiety and depression” and a promising paper into how CST reduces pain and is helpful in anxiety and depression (http://delhibusinessreview.shtr.org/V16n1/dbr_v16n1j.pdf)
Fascia is a thin “cling film” that surrounds and wraps itself, like an internal spider web, in and around every muscle, organ, bone, nerve and blood vessel in the body. It is composed of layers of elastin and collagen. Fascia connects, stabilises and unifies all the parts of the body. The smooth, sticky white film covering the top of a raw chicken breast is similar to the outermost layer of fascia in our bodies.
Fascia has long been overlooked by conventional medicine, as just “wrapping paper” with the more important stuff underneath, like our muscles, bones, ligaments and joints. Anatomical charts of a human body do not show fascia. Fascia is now being recognized and scientifically proven for its importance in the correct physiological functioning of our body and the influence it has on all body structures. As fascia is filled with blood vessels, lymph vessels, immune cells and nerve cells you can start to understand why.
An analogy to look at fascia is the white skin around a peeled mandarin that holds the flesh of the fruit together and permeates inside every piece of mandarin. This tissue of the mandarin needs to remain oxygenated, fluid, pliable, moist and healthy so the whole mandarin can remain healthy, tasty and juicy. If it is damaged or bruised in one area, it will have an effect on the whole; leaving the mandarin dry, acidic, compressed and tasteless. This basically starts to happen in our body when pain and inflammation sets in.
Key Functions of fascia
Fascia is like our bodies “Internet Highway”, transmitting tension and communication through electrical signals to every cell in our body. Fascia can feel, as it is filled with nerve receptors and is our richest sense organ, relaying information up to the brain for processing and feedback. Fascia also functions as a shock absorber and storage container. Everything we experience in our life enters into our body through our fascia and literally holds all the information of our lives. When fascia becomes tight or damaged, a number of symptoms can start to show up like back, neck and shoulder problems, headaches, migraines, jaw problems, disk problems, inflammation, digestive issues, pinched nerves, joint problems and a sense of less flexibility and mobility.
How fascia affects your health - The issues that are affecting your tissues.
One of our oldest biological responses to stress is tissue contraction also known as muscle guarding or emotional bracing. This is one of the common causes of fascial restrictions. Stress causes the fibers to harden and can result in adhesions, stiff and tight muscles, hyperacidity, those frozen places or that clicky sound we hear when we move our shoulders. Chronic stress or worries can also lead to a changed chemical environment with high levels of adrenaline or cortisol floating in our bodies, leading to crystallisation of the tissues.
The human body is able to repair itself after any small accident or injury but if we have a more severe injury like an accident or fall, doing heavy physical work or over-exercising; the impact can sometimes be greater than the body is able to deal with. Sticky adhesions and compressions can start to form in your fascia, much like a chewed out gum, impeding blood flow and other important physiological functions.
As fascia runs through the whole body and links all body parts together it also has a reciprocal nature, allowing for any pull or twist to be transmitted and ricochet through our fascial system to another part. That is why when you fall on your bottom, you can sometimes end up with a headache.
Surgery, like a cesarean, inevitably cuts go through several layers of fascia. Imagine several layers of “cling wrap” on top of each other and these different layers may not necessarily realign perfectly again afterwards, bunching up and sticking together and starting to pull on nearby areas like a vertebrae. Anesthetics or any chemicals through long term medication or radiation carry a high toxic load and can leave a residue toxic effect in the cells of the fascial webbing, impeding proper nutrition, information and fluid flow.
Ever gotten out of a long car ride or sitting behind your desk and felt really tight, stiff and in need of a good stretch? This is your fascia starting to stick together and needing to become stretchy and flexible again. As fascia has the tendency to mold and adapt itself, over time bad posture can become more permanent leading to hunched & rounded shoulders, forward head posture or a tight back. This inhibits our range of motion and impedes circulation of blood, oxygen and energy through our fascia to various areas of our body.
5. Shock, Trauma & Life Experiences.
Scientific research shows that fascia holds our emotional memories as a storage container absorbing our emotional tensions, particularly the ones we don’t deal with as we repress and soldier on. Fascia is the body’s primary communication system and plays a big role in the Mind-Body Connection. Life experiences causing pain, grief, anger and sadness can get buried into your fascial system. This could be a one-off significant event or a more slow and gradual persisting stressor that leaves imprints in our bodies. The body does find some good places to hide things and if unreleased can start to create aches, pains, inflammation, anxiety, depression or things like ear ringing or twitches.
How to improve your Fascia: 4 ways to keep you and your Fascia healthy.
1. Movement – Use it or lose it
There is a great video on YouTube -The Fuzz Speech – by Anatomist Gil Hendley (done on a human cadaver) that shows “the fuzz’ that builds up in your fascia after any prolonged rest like sitting behind your desk or sleeping. Stretching your body every day is a great tool to avoid this and to get the fluid moving into your fascia. Your body loves to move and any kind of soft tissue exercise like swimming, tai chi, qi gong or yoga that gets your fascia going is perfect. After getting up in the morning gently stretch for three to five minutes, from head to toe and side to side and relax into each stretch before you move on. My personal favourite is dancing “like nobody is watching” to any Bruno Mars song.
2. Water and Natural Supplements
Fascia contains 70% fluid in a gel like consistency. Fascia needs to stay pliable and moist in order to work properly and for us to feel well. Clean food and drinking pure water is essential in keeping it hydrated. An expert naturopath will be able to assist you with the right supplements to keep your fascia in good health and detoxify. My personal favorite products to de-clunk and de-junk are the Detox kit from Heel, Basica Active to lower Ph levels and a high quality Omega 3 or 6 fatty acid to boost the intercellular matrix.
3. Self-fascial Release
Australia’s leading Fascia expert and Myofascial Release teacher Chris O’Brien explains that using soft tissue mobilization tools such as a Swiss ball, Foam Roller or Lacrosse ball can be excellent tools to release tight fascia.
1. Opening up the Fascia along the whole front of the body: Lie with your back over a Swiss ball, with you feet flat on the ground and your arms spread out wide to the sides, facing up. This will open up the heart, lungs and chest area with some excellent results and benefits. Do this exercise for a minimum of 2 minutes.
2. Use a foam roller -When using a foam roller apply slow movements and go gentle at first and when you have you found your area of tension you can hold pressure there for 3 to 5 minutes. A great way to release tension in the chest and rib area is to place the foam roller underneath your chest, whilst lying face down on the floor or a mat. Slowly add pressure by sinking into the foam roller - rest here for two minutes until you feel a softening happening in the area.
3. Lacrosse ball - Most people will have sore spots on the edges of their shoulder blades. To release this tight fascia, lie down with your back on the floor and place a Lacrosse ball between your shoulder blade and spine, seek out the areas of tension and sink into the ball for at least two minutes.
4. Myofascial Release Therapy
Fascia does not respond to force or hard massage techniques as it creates muscle guarding and will go into protection mode. Fascia needs to be released with a slow and sustained pressure to first get to the elastin level and then onwards to the collagen level. This is the beauty of Myofascial Release. The movements are slow and controlled, turning hard clay into soft clay by stretching and decompressing tissues, melting away tension, pain and stiffness and creating space in the body so it can take up its proper physiological functions again. As fascia holds our emotional memories, myofascial can assist you in releasing and resolving those emotions. If you have ever found yourself crying at the end of a yoga class or myofascial release session you will know what I mean.
Fascia is everywhere in the body, full of life, energy and memories and vital to your health. Blood vessels, immune cells and nerves run through it, so fascial care means not only circulatory and nervous system care but overall care. Therefore the benefits of Myofascial Release are multiple and can be profound and really good for any kind of condition: From less pain, to better posture, increased energy, vitality, better sleep and improved flexibility. Beauty therapists in America & Europe are now also starting to incorporate fascial myofascial release – aka face-lift massage - to target those all important collagen fibers for better skin.
We are very familiar in identifying ourselves with our physical body through diet, exercise and beauty. We have a tendency to overlook that we are so much more than just our physical body. We have a physical body, a mental body, an emotional body and a soul body. When we listen and look after all our four bodies together, physically and energetically, we can feel great and be in the best overall health we have ever been in. Our four bodies are closely connected and if not in harmony, impact our overall health. How we think and feel and what is going on in our world, effects our overall well-being. When you experience a restriction or pain in one of the bodies than the other bodies will often experience an impact as well. Emotional effects can be felt in our physical body like having butterflies in your tummy or tense muscles when you experience stress or anger. A mental blow, like losing your job, relationship or death of a loved one can reverberate in your emotional body causing sadness, anger or grief and physical symptoms can start to creep up. The physical shock of experiencing an accident or trauma can leave emotional and mental imprints in our body that manifest as physical or emotional reactions such as tense muscles, backaches, irritability, angry outbursts or headaches.
1. Our Physical Body – Where are your tensions?
The physical body houses our aches, pains and tensions. Physical pain can originate due to an injury, bad posture, inflammation, tension or a medical procedure leaving a pattern of restriction in our tissues and causing our muscles to ache. Our physical body can also react to what is going on in our mental and emotional world and will give us a signal in the form of a symptom. It may start with a simple muscle spasm, stiff neck or headache but can lead into more chronic pain and diverse symptoms. Craniosacral/Myofascial, releases and tracks the physical changes as they are taking place in the bones, tissues, and fluids. It can give great relief for all types of pain, from back, neck and shoulder pain, headaches to more complex conditions like ear ringing or whiplash. This bodywork has some marvelous techniques for releasing pain such as inter-oral techniques that can unwind and release a tight jaw, migraines and headaches, providing instant relief.
Tip to Access your Physical body – Body Awareness
Mindfully scan your body and find a part of your body that feels good. This place can be as small as the tip of your finger or as big as your torso. Rest in this place and feel the sensations in this area. Now move your awareness slowly through your other body parts. Where do you feel tension? Let your mind rest there for a while. What sensations lie here? Is it warm or is it cold? Let any image or sensations come to mind. Gently go back to the place where you feel good and rest here for a little while longer. Open your eyes.
2. Our Mental Body – What do I think of myself?
Your mental body is where your thoughts, your deep-seated beliefs and unconscious convictions lie about yourself. We identify ourselves strongly with our mental body: we think, therefore we are. Our mental body is very busy. We think, we compare, we rationalise and we think some more about could have been and should have been. The mind exerts a very powerful impact on our bodies: How we think about ourselves and our deep-seated beliefs and core convictions has a big influence on how we feel about ourselves; on our behavior, on our emotional reactions and ultimately on our physical body. You may have a deep-seated belief that you are not good enough, or that you have to be overly loud, friendly or succeed to be valued. Craniosacral sessions harness the mind-body connection by bringing awareness to our deepest beliefs, release them and bring a change to our ingrained habits.
Tip to access your mental body – Examine your beliefs
Write down your mental beliefs about who you are. Examine all your beliefs and convictions about your self. Examine how they drive you to be who you are and how it determines your behavior.
3. Our Emotional body – how do I feel about myself?
This is the part of the body that holds your feelings and your emotions. The emotional body is what often lies beneath the surface and we are not generally aware of how it impacts us. We are very good at denying our emotional reactions and our bodies can find some great places to hide them for us. An emotion like fear or anger that you experienced during a workplace incident, accident or through trauma can lodge itself in your body, carry unresolved tension and manifest itself in physical symptoms. For example: If we see a cyclist coming towards us at full speed and we can not jump out of the way than not only the physical force of the collision but also the emotional power of fear or anger will enter into our tissues and intensify the pain. If these emotions stay unreleased they can become trapped in the tissue memory of our body. Our subconscious mind is very capable of producing a physical reaction rather than having to deal with an unwanted painful emotion. Craniosacral/Myofascial can help release the energy the body has retained after a traumatic physical or emotional experience and integrate the experience.
Tip to access your emotional body – What is your emotional coping style?
When you feel an emotion coming up, do you deal with that emotion or do you repress it? Try and be as honest as you can, as we often deny our uncomfortable emotions like anger or sadness. Make a list of what kind of emotion came up, why was it triggered, what did you do with that emotion and where did you feel it in your body?
4. Our Soul body – The essence of you – Welcome Home
Your soul body is your core essence, your inner you and your spiritual home. It is our higher consciousness, where all is one and where we feel connected to something way bigger than our pure physical form. It is in our Soul body where we feel inner peace, stillness, bliss and find our inner wisdom. The more we get in touch with our spiritual body, the more we get to deeply know and stay true to our self. Often there is a disconnect between our Soul body and our Physical, Mental and Emotional body as they all vie for our attention. Receiving a Craniosacral/Myofascial session can facilitate a deep state of meditative rest and bring the four bodies together in harmony. Here we can connect and access sensations that may have been previously outside of our awareness. Connecting with our inner wisdom: that part in us that has the insights, intuition and knows what we need to do heal ourselves.
Tip to connect with your spiritual body: Meditate – Find your Inner smile
Meditate, meditate, meditate and meditate. Meditation is for all the answers you can't find on Google:)
5 minutes Inner Smile meditation: Sit comfortably, close your eyes, turn your attention inward and smile. Remember the first time you fell in love? Feel that love; let yourself fill up with that feeling of love. Draw this smiling loving energy, this glowing ball of light through your body and let it rest for a while in every part of your body from your head to your heart to your liver to your digestive system through your bones and down your spinal cord as it fills you up with joy and compassion. Take your inner smile to where you are feeling anger, frustration, hurt or pain and let it rest there for a while. Feel your whole body filling up with love, warmth and compassion. Nurture your body and thank your body for working so hard 24/7/365. Keep the smile with you as your lips and eyes keep smiling and very gently open your eyes.
Craniosacral & Myofascial Release treats the physical body by relieving pain from the musculoskeletal system, releasing deep stored tension and lifting stresses from the nervous system and also has an energetic component as it integrates our mind, body and soul.